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Explain Skin effect and proximity effect in current carrying conductor. How it effect the system

Skin Effect :
When an alternating current flows through a solid conductor, the distribution of current across the cross section of the conductor found to be non-uniform and the current tends to flow around the surface of the conductor. This effect is called skin effect. It is more pronounced at high frequencies and with conductors of large cross sections. Since the inner core of the conductor is linked with larger amount of magnetic flux than the outer surface, it is having larger impedance to alternating currents than the Outer surface and hence current and current density tend to he greater in the outer surface.This reduces the effective area of section of the conductor. rherefore a hollow conductor bus is best suited and economical to transmit high current.

Proximity effect
When two conductors are placed near to each other carrying high currents. then half portion of the conductor links with more magnetic flux being nearer and the other half gets less flux linkage being further away. This causes non-uniformity of current flow across the cross-section of the conductors due to the increase in impedance in part of the conductors.

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